High energy phenomena in clusters of galaxies, particularly those involving shock waves, turbulence, magnetic fields, and cosmic rays in high temperature and low beta plasma will be studies. Observations in radio and X-ray will be used to motivate and analyze theoretical works. Laboratory experiments using PAL-XFEL will be performed to explore the fundamental processes in high energy X-ray phenomena. Particularly, answers for the following problems will be sought.
① Velocity distribution of thermal particles.
② Properties and roles of nonthermal cosmic rays.
③ Nature and origin of magnetic fields.
④ Origin, and roles of turbulence.
⑤ Properties and physical mechanism of collisionless shock waves.